Prespow1 scores

Here is the set of prespow1 scores, plus a quick guide as to how to read them.

The raw score is the mean normalized score for a particular country time period based on the existing scores for that country time period. For example, Shugart and Carey (1992) recorded a score of 17 for Panama 1972-2012 on their scale from 0-40. Therefore, the Shugart and Carey normalized presidential power score for Panama was 0.43 in a range from 0-1. A score for Panama was recorded in four of the 28 datasets. The average of these four normalized scores was 0.47, generating a raw (prespow1) score for Panama.

The figures for the standard errors and the 95% confidence intervals for a country capture the variation among the original set of scores for that country. For instance, do the four scholars who have provided a presidential power score for Panama tend to agree with each other, in which case the difference between the lower and the upper bounds of the 95% confidence intervals will be small, or is there a lot of variation between them, in which case it will be large? This makes it possible to get a sense of the reliability of the score for any particular country time period. When there are no confidence intervals it means that there was only one original score for that country time period.

The prespow1 normalized score – the one that should be used – is simply the normalized raw score for the particular country time period. In order to permit comparisons between prespow1 and prespow2, we had to normalize the raw scores for prespow1, with the effect that the most powerful prespow1 president has a score of 1 and the least powerful has a score of 0. So, the final prespow1 score for Panama is 0.45.

Prespow1

Country Year Raw Score Standard Errors 95% confidence intervals Lower Bound 95% confidence intervals Upper Bound Normalized Score
Albania 1991-1998 0.214 0.037 0.127 0.301 0.181
Albania 1998 0.175 0.027 0.055 0.295 0.141
Algeria 1997-2008 0.504 0.483
Angola 1993-2009 0.431 0.408
Argentina 1984-1994 0.317 0.032 -0.098 0.732 0.288
Argentina 1994 0.43 0.049 0.294 0.567 0.407
Armenia 1991-1994 0.436 0.043 0.301 0.571 0.412
Armenia 1995-2005 0.427 0.06 0.271 0.582 0.403
Armenia 2006 – 0.664 0.65
Austria 1945 – 0.128 0.012 0.1 0.156 0.092
Azerbaijan 1996-2002 0.711 0.07 0.488 0.933 0.699
Bangladesh 1986 – 0.143 0.107
Belarus 1994-1996 0.564 0.067 0.399 0.728 0.545
Belarus 1997 – 0.631 0.094 0.369 0.893 0.615
Benin 1991 – 0.647 0.179 -0.125 1.419 0.632
Bolivia 1967-1994 0.317 0.033 -0.098 0.733 0.289
Bolivia 1995-2008 0.347 0.053 0.179 0.514 0.319
Bosnia and H 1996 – 0.313 0.188 -2.07 2.695 0.284
Botswana 1967 – 0.75 0.74
Brazil 1946-1953 0.475 0.453
Brazil 1954 – 1960 0.407 0.068 -0.461 1.274 0.382
Brazil 1988 – 0.507 0.044 0.394 0.619 0.486
Bulgaria 1990-1991 0.058 0.033 -0.361 0.477 0.018
Bulgaria 1992 – 0.216 0.044 0.122 0.31 0.183
Burkina Faso 1978-1980 0.2 0.166
Burkina Faso 1991-2011 0.375 0.349
Burundi 1992 – 1996 0.575 0.557
CAR 1992-1993 0.3 0.271
CAR 1995-2002 0.413 0.113 -1.017 1.842 0.388
CAR 2005 – 0.481 0.044 -0.075 1.037 0.46
Cameroon 1996 – 0.375 0.349
Cape Verde 1991-1992 0.225 0.193
Cape Verde 1993 – 0.31 0.066 0.1 0.52 0.281
Chile 1891-1925 0.4 0.375
Chile 1925-1969 0.5 0.479
Chile 1969-1973 0.542 0.058 -0.191 1.275 0.523
Chile 1989 – 0.587 0.058 0.427 0.747 0.57
China 1983-2004 0.04 0
Colombia 1960 – 1990 0.44 0.06 -0.326 1.205 0.416
Colombia 1991 – 0.406 0.062 0.233 0.578 0.381
Comoros 1997-1998 0.35 0.323
Comoros 2002 – 1 1
Congo Brazzaville 1961-1963 0.2 0.166
Congo Brazzaville 1992-1997 0.242 0.068 -0.052 0.535 0.21
Congo Brazzaville 2002 – 1 1
Costa Rica 1949 – 0.312 0.032 0.223 0.402 0.284
Cote d’Ivoire 1961-1999 0.38 0.354
Croatia 1991-2000 0.362 0.05 0.25 0.473 0.335
Croatia 2001 – 0.319 0.074 0.001 0.637 0.291
Cuba 1941-1958 0.325 0.297
Cyprus 1960 – 0.663 0.338 -3.626 4.951 0.648
Czech Rep 1993-2000 0.177 0.036 0.088 0.266 0.142
Czech Rep 2001-2011 0.287 0.103 -0.042 0.615 0.257
Djibouti 1993-2009 1 1
Dominican Republic 1967-1994 0.35 0.323
Dominican Republic 1995-2002 0.424 0.072 0.113 0.735 0.4
Ecuador 1984-1998 0.388 0.058 0.138 0.638 0.363
Ecuador 1999-2008 0.578 0.05 0.417 0.738 0.56
Egypt 1980-2000 0.528 0.509
El Salvador 1984-2000 0.34 0.063 0.14 0.541 0.313
El Salvador 2001 – 0.398 0.022 0.125 0.672 0.373
Estonia 1992 – 0.217 0.032 0.145 0.289 0.184
Finland 1957 – 1994 0.191 0.009 0.075 0.306 0.157
Finland 1995-1999 0.196 0.027 0.121 0.271 0.162
Finland 2000-2011 0.088 0.035 -0.023 0.2 0.05
France 1963-2008 0.166 0.02 0.117 0.214 0.131
Gabon 1997-2010 0.434 0.004 0.387 0.481 0.41
Gambia 1997 – 0.625 0.609
Georgia 1990-1995 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.166
Georgia 1996-2003 0.604 0.071 0.43 0.779 0.588
Georgia 2004 – 0.575 0.557
Germany 1920-1932 0.4 0.375
Germany 1946 – 0.068 0.029
Ghana 1980-1991 0.45 0.427
Ghana 1992 – 0.458 0.091 0.068 0.849 0.436
Greece 1986 – 0.068 0.029
Guatemala 1985 – 0.312 0.061 0.144 0.48 0.283
Guinea 1992-2009 0.6 0.212 -2.094 3.295 0.584
Guinea-Bissau 1980 – 0.31 0.015 0.123 0.498 0.281
Haiti 1987 – 0.104 0.07 -0.196 0.404 0.066
Honduras 1982 – 0.369 0.01 0.337 0.401 0.343
Hungary 1991-2011 0.305 0.045 0.2 0.409 0.275
Iceland 1944 – 0.352 0.079 0.133 0.571 0.325
India 1950 – 0.098 0.06
Indonesia 1960-2002 0.069 0.03
Iran 1990 – 0.158 0.123
Ireland 1938 – 0.1 0.048 -0.033 0.233 0.062
Israel 1964 – 0.045 0.005
Italy 1948 – 0.136 0.1
Kazakhstan 1990-1992 0.52 0.22 -2.275 3.315 0.5
Kazakhstan 1993-1995 0.45 0.427
Kazakhstan 1996 – 0.674 0.08 0.419 0.93 0.661
Kenya 1998-2007 0.631 0.119 0.119 1.143 0.616
Kyrgyzstan 1990-1992 0.275 0.275 0.275 0.245
Kyrgyzstan 1993-1995 0.48 0.089 0.196 0.765 0.459
Kyrgyzstan 1996-2002 0.505 0.055 0.363 0.647 0.484
Kyrgyzstan 2003-2007 0.671 0.019 0.43 0.911 0.657
Latvia 1992-1997 0.168 0.025 0.111 0.225 0.133
Latvia 1998 – 0.05 0.01
Lithuania 1993 – 0.311 0.044 0.217 0.405 0.282
Macedonia 1992 – 0.151 0.031 0.084 0.219 0.116
Madagascar 1993-1997 0.138 0.088 -0.974 1.249 0.101
Madagascar 1998-2008 0.431 0.006 0.352 0.511 0.407
Malawi 1994 – 0.607 0.165 0.082 1.132 0.59
Mali 1992-2012 0.365 0.094 0.104 0.626 0.339
Malta 1965 – 0.182 0.148
Mauritania 2006-2008 0.469 0.031 0.072 0.866 0.446
Mauritius 1992 – 0.21 0.103 -1.095 1.515 0.177
Mexico 1929 – 0.37 0.028 0.28 0.46 0.343
Moldova 1990 0.26 0.11 -1.14 1.66 0.229
Moldova 1991-1994 0.316 0.091 -0.843 1.475 0.288
Moldova 1995-2000 0.27 0.059 0.13 0.41 0.24
Moldova 2001 – 0.301 0.069 0.004 0.598 0.272
Mongolia 1992 – 0.322 0.092 -0.075 0.718 0.293
Mozambique 1987 – 1990 0.318 0.29
Mozambique 1991-2004 0.381 0.006 0.308 0.453 0.355
Mozambique 2005 – 0.491 0.099 0.065 0.916 0.469
Namibia 1990 – 0.41 0.06 0.256 0.563 0.385
Nicaragua 1987 – 0.427 0.039 0.303 0.55 0.403
Niger 1993-1995 0.475 0.025 0.157 0.793 0.453
Niger 2000-2009 0.369 0.069 -0.505 1.242 0.342
Nigeria 1989-1993 0.313 0.013 0.154 0.471 0.284
Nigeria 1999 – 0.658 0.17 -0.074 1.391 0.644
Pakistan 1998-1999 0.344 0.316
Panama 1972 0.474 0.046 0.326 0.621 0.452
Paraguay 1968-1991 0.55 0.531
Paraguay 1992 – 0.301 0.045 0.156 0.446 0.272
Peru 1980-1992 0.236 0.011 0.101 0.37 0.204
Peru 1994 – 0.443 0.056 0.263 0.623 0.42
Philippines 1987 – 0.305 0.095 -0.906 1.515 0.276
Poland 1990-1992 0.175 0.14
Poland 1993-1996 0.323 0.051 0.205 0.441 0.295
Poland 1997 – 0.271 0.044 0.175 0.368 0.241
Portugal 1976 – 1982 0.294 0.031 -0.103 0.691 0.264
Portugal 1983 – 0.229 0.016 0.19 0.268 0.197
Romania 1992 – 0.28 0.033 0.211 0.349 0.25
Russia 1990-1991 0.15 0.114
Russia 1992-1993 0.298 0.073 -0.017 0.613 0.269
Russia 1994 – 0.579 0.056 0.454 0.704 0.561
STP 1991-2002 0.31 0.015 0.123 0.498 0.281
STP 2003 – 0.239 0.011 0.094 0.383 0.207
Senegal 1992-2000 0.413 0.013 0.254 0.571 0.388
Senegal 2001 – 0.583 0.116 0.084 1.082 0.566
Seychelles 1993 – 0.625 0.609
Sierra Leone 1992 – 0.565 0.217 -0.369 1.5 0.547
Singapore 1995 – 0.21 0.176
Slovakia 1993-1998 0.207 0.033 0.129 0.284 0.173
Slovakia 1999-2001 0.082 0.032 -0.322 0.486 0.043
Slovakia 2002 – 0.222 0.139 -0.376 0.82 0.189
Slovenia 1992 – 0.153 0.019 0.114 0.193 0.118
South Africa 1996 – 0.407 0.218 -2.358 3.173 0.383
South Korea 1949-1959 0.25 0.219
South Korea 1962-1972 0.45 0.427
South Korea 1988 – 0.375 0.349
Sri Lanka 1979 – 0.314 0.086 -0.054 0.683 0.286
Syria 1973-2011 0.602 0.585
Taiwan 1995 – 0.3 0.025 -0.018 0.618 0.271
Tajikistan 1995 – 0.518 0.051 0.387 0.649 0.498
Tanzania 1995 – 0.469 0.094 -0.722 1.66 0.446
Timor Leste 2002 – 0.193 0.159
Togo 2003 – 0.438 0.414
Trinidad & Tobago 1976 – 0.1 0.063
Tunisia 1998 – 2010 0.38 0.354
Turkey 1983-2007 0.297 0.127 -1.314 1.909 0.268
Turkey 2008 – 0.182 0.182 0.182 0.148
Turkmenistan 1992 – 2008 0.675 0.078 0.476 0.875 0.662
US 1788 – 0.318 0.008 0.222 0.413 0.289
Uganda 1996 – 0.531 0.126 -0.012 1.075 0.512
Ukraine 1992-1995 0.42 0.106 0.125 0.715 0.395
Ukraine 1996-2004 0.463 0.061 0.319 0.606 0.44
Ukraine 2005-2010 0.356 0.206 -2.264 2.977 0.329
Ukraine 2011 – 0.486 0.065 0.328 0.644 0.464
Uruguay 1985 – 0.402 0.02 0.338 0.467 0.377
Uzbekistan 1993 – 0.659 0.056 0.516 0.802 0.645
Venezuela 1961 – 1999 0.287 0.039 0.179 0.395 0.257
Venezuela 2001 – 0.415 0.391
Yugoslavia 1992-2000 0.235 0.025 -0.083 0.553 0.203
Zaire 1997-2002 0.304 0.275
Zambia 1992-1995 0.35 0.323
Zambia 1996 – 0.625 0.13 0.213 1.038 0.61
Zimbabwe 1991-2008 0.752 0.189 -0.061 1.565 0.742

 

 

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