Indonesia is counting down to the elections, with House and Council races scheduled for April and the Presidency in July (with run-offs in September). 560 seats of the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR) are contestable, alongside 128 seats for the People’s Representatives Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD). Together with provincial elections – 2112 seats – and district elections – 16,895 seats – the election year promises to be no small affair. A review of the election rules and the impact on political parties and the presidential elections will help frame how the election year unfolds.
Legislative elections are guided by Law No. 8, passed in 2012. Representatives to the DPR are elected under an open-list proportional system through affiliation with political parties. Members of the DPD are elected via single non-transferable vote, and perform as individuals in the Upper House, notwithstanding their political affiliations.
Article 8 of Law 8 stipulates that political parties may contest the elections if they meet the following conditions:
- Political Parties that contested the last Election and met the threshold of vote acquisition of the total national valid votes (3.5 percent) shall be determined as Contesting Political Parties in the next Election.
- Political Parties that did not meet the threshold of vote acquisition in the previous Election or newly established political parties may become Election Contestants after meeting the following requirements:
a) have regional chapters in all provinces;
b) have chapters in 75% (seventy five percent) of the total number of regencies/ municipalities in the province;
c) have chapters in 50% (fifty percent) of the total number of districts/kecamatan in the regency/municipality;
d) have at least 30% (thirty percent) women’s representation in the management of the central chapter of the political part;
e) have a minimum of 1000 members of the total population for each chapter of political party;
In addition, Article 55 stipulates that the list of party nominees for candidates must contain at least 30% women candidates.
For 2014, the General Elections Commission (Komisi Pemilihan Unum, KPU) sanctioned 12 parties to contest the national elections, with an additional three eligible to contest provincial elections in Aceh. They are:
- Nasdem Party
- National Awakening Party (PKB, chair HA Muhaimin Iskandar)
- Prosperous Justice Party (PKS, chair Muhammad Anis Matta)
- Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P, chair former President Megawai Sukarnoputri)
- Golkar (leading party of the Suharto era, chair Aburizal Bakrie)
- Party Movement Indonesia Raya (Gerindra, chair Prof. Dr. Ir. Suhardi, founder Prabowo Subianto)
- Democratic Party (PD, chair President Dr. Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono)
- National Mandate Party (PAN, chair M. Hatta Rajasa)
- United Development Party (PPP, chair Dr. H. Suryadharma Ali)
- People’s Conscience party (HANURA, chair former presidential candidate H. Wiranto)
- Crescent Star Party (PBB, chair Dr. H. MS. Kaban)
- Indonesian Justice and Unity party (PKPI, Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia, splinter party from Golkar)
However, only parties or coalitions with at least 25 percent of the vote or 20 percent of the House are able to field a presidential candidate. The Constitutional Court has scrapped these requirements for the 2019 elections with the landmark decision to hold concurrent legislative and presidential elections. At the moment, that still rules out some of the parties, like the Gerindra party, that hold less than 20% of the House seats.
Meanwhile, jockeying for nomination as presidential candidate of the various parties continues. Two parties have already nominated their candidates — Gerindra’s nominee is its founder, Prabowo Subianto, while Golkar’s presidential candidate is Aburizal Barkrie, its chair and chief benefactor — although they may not be able contest the presidential elections without coalition partners under the current electoral laws. Meanwhile, President Yudhoyo’s Democratic Party has set its 11 candidates on a national-tour-debate that will end in April. The PDI-P has yet to name a candidate: Jakarta Governor Joko “Jokowi” Widodo is a favourite and consistently outpolls the other candidates, but there is the possibility that the party may nominate Megawati as presidential candidate.
One thing seems clear: there will be no shortage of election news from Indonesia in 2014.